002782古玩城2020精品推荐第一期:商朝王室礼典用顶级古玉

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建立于公元前17世纪002782的商王朝自迁殷以后,文明的进程得以大大地向前推进。商朝拥有庞大的政权机器此时的商再也不是那种氏族社会中的军事酋长和巫师为首领的现形象,他已成了古代国家至高无上的君主专制。在上层建筑方面,自上以下,内有高位宰辅率朝廷百官分管行政事务、主持册命、祭祀神灵以及商贸农耕、军事战争等等国家大事,外有诸侯方伯称臣纳贡统领四方疆土。

002782af002782ter t002782he Shang Dynasty, which was f002782ounded in the 17th century BC, moved to Yin, the process of civilization was greatly advanced. The Shang Dynasty had a huge power machine. At this time, the Shang Dynasty was no longer the current image of military chiefs and witches as leaders in clan society. He had become the supreme absolute monarchy in ancient countries. In terms of superstructure, from top to bottom, there are high-ranking officials in charge of administrative affairs, presiding over books and orders, offering sacrifices to gods, commercial farming, military warfare and other state affairs, while the vassal Fang Bo commands the territory of the four sides with tribute.

历史政治背景是玉器发展的决定性因素,商代政权的建立和巩固,决定了商玉走向国家高度垄断的局面。商代总计约6个世纪,无论是前期还是后期,除玉都以外各地玉器出土均不很突出。一方面全国其他制玉走向萎缩,另一方面在玉都大量集中。这反映了一个历史事实:商玉朝的玉器制造已走向了以国家政权为核心的垄断事业《周礼》中有玉器‘不恋于市”的明文规定。玉器不准买卖,不是垄断是什么?其实,这从夏商时代就开始了。如此高度的集中和垄断除国家政权而外其他任何社会组织是做不到这一点的。

The historical and political background is the decisive factor in the development of jade wares. The establishment and consolidation of the Shang Dynasty's political power determined that the Shang jade went into a state monopoly. The Shang Dynasty lasted for about 6 centuries. No matter in the early or late period, jade articles unearthed from other places except jade capital were not very prominent. On the one hand, other jade producers in the country are shrinking; on the other hand, jade is concentrated in large quantities. This reflects a historical fact: the manufacture of jade wares in Shang and Yu dynasties has gone to the monopoly business with the state power as the core, and the Zhou Li contains a clear stipulation that jade wares "do not love the city". Jades are not allowed to be bought or sold. What is not monopoly? In fact, this started from the Xia and Shang dynasties. Such a high degree of concentration and monopoly cannot be achieved by any other social organization except the state power.

商代玉雕技艺的高超和精湛,玉器造型的进一步精美与成熟,礼祭用玉的强化和丰富,人身和器物上装饰用玉范围的扩大,都是前代无法比拟的,特别是国家殿堂上的仪仗用玉和在社会生活领域的全新开发,无论是在实践上还是在理论上,对中华文化都有着无法估量的影响。

The superb and exquisite jade carving skills of the Shang Dynasty, the further refinement and maturity of the jade modeling, the strengthening and enrichment of the jade used for ritual sacrifices, and the expansion of the scope of the jade used for decoration on people and objects are incomparable to the previous generation. In particular, the ceremonial jade used in national halls and the new development in the field of social life have an immeasurable impact on Chinese culture, both in practice and in theory.

殷商时代之所以能够取得卓越的玉雕艺术成就,有两个重要的原因;一是社会发展方面的因素。国家政权垄断统治的需要为玉器的发展创造了条件;二是意识形态方面的因素。商代社会虽然从原始社会的荒原中走了过来,但社会生活还没有从野蛮恐怖中解放出来,商代大批杀殉奴隶就是重要的例证,但另一方面人们对鬼神的信仰毕竟有所松动,理性的幼芽已欲萌发。那些曾经被认为神圣不可亵读的玉已开始进入社会生活,这就如同为玉雕艺术的发展打开了一扇通向无限广阔的大门。

There are two important reasons why the Yin and Shang dynasties were able to achieve outstanding artistic achievements in jade carving. One is social development. The need of state monopoly created conditions for the development of jade wares. The second is ideological factors. Although the Shang Dynasty society came from the wasteland of primitive society, social life has not yet been liberated from barbarism and terror. The killing of slaves in large numbers in the Shang Dynasty is an important example, but on the other hand, people's belief in ghosts and gods has loosened somewhat, and rational buds are about to sprout. The jade that was once considered sacred has begun to enter the social life, which is like opening a door to infinity for the development of jade carving art.

此商朝王室礼典用顶级古玉在造型上追求写实,全部运用阴刻或阳纹雕琢纹样进行装饰,如云纹、鳞纹、旋纹、回纹等。纹样和造型相互协调,纹样和纹样又相互协调,艺术风格统一表现出独特的时代特征。非凡的才华、神奇的创意这是殷商琢玉巨匠留给后人的无穷财富。

This Shang dynasty royal ritual uses top-grade ancient jade to pursue realism in its modeling, and all of them are decorated with carved patterns of yin or yang, such as cloud patterns, scales, spiral patterns, and palindromes. Patterns and shapes coordinate with each other, patterns and patterns coordinate with each other, and artistic style shows unique characteristics of the times. Extraordinary talent and magical creativity are the infinite wealth left to future generations by the great jade carvers of the Shang Dynasty.

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