002782af002782ter t002782he Shang Dynasty, which was f002782ounded in the 17th century BC, moved to Yin, the process of civilization was greatly advanced. The Shang Dynasty had a huge power machine. At this time, the Shang Dynasty was no longer the current image of military chiefs and witches as leaders in clan society. He had become the supreme absolute monarchy in ancient countries. In terms of superstructure, from top to bottom, there are high-ranking officials in charge of administrative affairs, presiding over books and orders, offering sacrifices to gods, commercial farming, military warfare and other state affairs, while the vassal Fang Bo commands the territory of the four sides with tribute.
The historical and political background is the decisive factor in the development of jade wares. The establishment and consolidation of the Shang Dynasty's political power determined that the Shang jade went into a state monopoly. The Shang Dynasty lasted for about 6 centuries. No matter in the early or late period, jade articles unearthed from other places except jade capital were not very prominent. On the one hand, other jade producers in the country are shrinking; on the other hand, jade is concentrated in large quantities. This reflects a historical fact: the manufacture of jade wares in Shang and Yu dynasties has gone to the monopoly business with the state power as the core, and the Zhou Li contains a clear stipulation that jade wares "do not love the city". Jades are not allowed to be bought or sold. What is not monopoly? In fact, this started from the Xia and Shang dynasties. Such a high degree of concentration and monopoly cannot be achieved by any other social organization except the state power.
The superb and exquisite jade carving skills of the Shang Dynasty, the further refinement and maturity of the jade modeling, the strengthening and enrichment of the jade used for ritual sacrifices, and the expansion of the scope of the jade used for decoration on people and objects are incomparable to the previous generation. In particular, the ceremonial jade used in national halls and the new development in the field of social life have an immeasurable impact on Chinese culture, both in practice and in theory.
There are two important reasons why the Yin and Shang dynasties were able to achieve outstanding artistic achievements in jade carving. One is social development. The need of state monopoly created conditions for the development of jade wares. The second is ideological factors. Although the Shang Dynasty society came from the wasteland of primitive society, social life has not yet been liberated from barbarism and terror. The killing of slaves in large numbers in the Shang Dynasty is an important example, but on the other hand, people's belief in ghosts and gods has loosened somewhat, and rational buds are about to sprout. The jade that was once considered sacred has begun to enter the social life, which is like opening a door to infinity for the development of jade carving art.
This Shang dynasty royal ritual uses top-grade ancient jade to pursue realism in its modeling, and all of them are decorated with carved patterns of yin or yang, such as cloud patterns, scales, spiral patterns, and palindromes. Patterns and shapes coordinate with each other, patterns and patterns coordinate with each other, and artistic style shows unique characteristics of the times. Extraordinary talent and magical creativity are the infinite wealth left to future generations by the great jade carvers of the Shang Dynasty.